Example and Key Words (verbs)
Knowledge: Recall data or information.
Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from memory to a customer. Knows the safety rules.
Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces, selects, states.
Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.
Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet.
Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes, translates.
Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place.
Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test.
Key Words: applies, changes, computes, constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.
Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences.
Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.
Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates.
Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.
Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Design a machine to perform a specific task. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. Revises and process to improve the outcome.
Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles, composes, creates, devises, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes.
Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.
Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a new budget.
Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes, supports.
Based on Bloom's Taxonomy, Developed and Expanded by John Maynard
Editor's Note: Your teachers will most often use this chart when making up questions -- it would be a good idea to become familiar with the terminology yourself. A great study aid.
I. KNOWLEDGE (drawing out factual answers, testing recall and recognition)
what is the best one
what does it mean
II. COMPREHENSION (translating, interpreting and extrapolating)
state in your own words
which are facts
what does this mean
is this the same as
give an example
select the best definition
condense this paragraph
what would happen if
state in one word
explain what is happening
what part doesn't fit
explain what is meant
what expectations are there
read the graph, table
what are they saying
what seems to be
is it valid that
what seems likely
show in a graph, table
which statements support
III. APPLICATION (to situations that are new, unfamiliar or have a new slant for students)
predict what would happen if
choose the best statements that apply
identify the results of
judge the effects
what would result
tell what would happen
tell how, when, where, why
tell how much change there would be
IV. ANALYSIS (breaking down into parts, forms)
what is the function of
what's fact, opinion
what statement is relevant
what motive is there
related to, extraneous to, not applicable
what does author believe, assume
make a distinction
state the point of view of
what is the premise
state the point of view of
what ideas apply
what ideas justify conclusion
what's the relationship between
the least essential statements are
what's the main idea, theme
what inconsistencies, fallacies
what literary form is used
what persuasive technique
implicit in the statement is
V. SYNTHESIS (combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before)
how would you test
propose an alternative
solve the following
how else would you
state a rule
VI. EVALUATION (according to some set of criteria, and state why)
what fallacies, consistencies, inconsistencies appear
which is more important, moral, better, logical, valid, appropriate
find the errors